The Bayer pattern color filter was invented and patented 1976 by Bryce Bayer, working as a scientist for Estman Kodak . The pattern was first described in Bryce Bayer’s notebook (29th May, 1974) as a solution to provide color in a camera using a photo sensor array. Bayer passed away at the age of 83 the 13th November 2012 in Bath, Maine. This clever and still simple pattern mimics the human eye’s structure by using double amount of green pixels compared to blue and red.

U.S. Patent No 3,971,065

Image sensor world has more information and an image of the notebook here.

4x4 Bayer pattern

Four times four Bayer pattern patch